Recombinant Protein Vaccines

Recombinant Protein Vaccines2024-03-04T13:43:12-05:00

Enhancing Immunity: The Revolutionary Power of Recombinant Protein Vaccines

The COVID-19 pandemic sparked a revolution in the world of scientific research and development, propelling innovative vaccines to the forefront. With groundbreaking advancements like recombinant protein vaccines and mRNA vaccines, the global vaccine industry continues to witness unprecedented growth.

What are recombinant protein vaccines?

Recombinant protein vaccines are a revolutionary advancement in vaccine technology, wherein the target protein is introduced into an alternative expression system to be expressed via genetic engineering. This innovative approach has many significant advantages compared to traditional inactivated vaccines, including high safety and stability, low immunogenicity, and ease of production. Recombinant protein vaccines have proven to be incredibly versatile and hold great potential across a wide range of vaccine categories.

Virus-Like Particles Vaccine

The virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine production process is an innovative approach in vaccine manufacturing, leveraging genetic engineering techniques to express structural proteins such as viral capsid proteins. These proteins autonomously assemble to create particles that are similar in shape and size to real virus particles, yet they lack viral nucleic acids. Importantly, VLPs are devoid of infectious genes, rendering them incapable of replication or causing disease. Nevertheless, they elicit a robust immune response, generating potent antibodies and cellular defenses against specific pathogens.

VLP vaccines offer a compelling combination of high immunogenicity, broad applicability, safety, and stability. Their utilization has proven effective in preventing a diverse array of infectious diseases, establishing them as a valuable tool in the field of immunization.

Key Steps of VLP Vaccine Production

  1. Gene Cloning: The genes encoding the structural proteins of the virus are initially cloned from the target virus. These genes may include viral capsid proteins or other crucial structural proteins. Subsequently, the target gene is amplified by PCR and is then inserted into an expression vector.
  2. Cell Culture: Expression vectors are transfected into host cells to express the capsid genes and produce VLP particles. Notably, virus-like particulate proteins possess the capability to self-assemble, forming structures resembling virus particles under suitable conditions. Commonly employed host cells include insect, mammalian, and plant cells.
  3. Cell Lysis: Harvested, cultured cells are separated from the culture medium, typically through centrifugation. Subsequently, the cells undergo lysis using mechanical, chemical, or other methods to release the VLP particles.
  4. Three-Steps Purification: Initially, cell debris and aggregates from the lysis process are eliminated through clarification methods like precipitation and ultrafiltration. Further purification, such as ion exchange chromatography, hydrophobic interaction chromatography, etc., is utilized according to the VLP’s specific properties. The final, crucial polishing step typically employs ultrafiltration/diafiltration (UF/DF) and size exclusion chromatography (SEC) to eliminate impurities, including residual host proteins and nucleic acids.
  5. Vaccine Preparation: The intact and purified VLP particles undergo aseptic filtration and adjuvant addition to create a safe and effective vaccine.

Recombinant Protein Expression Systems

Selecting the right protein expression system is essential for effective VLP production, as it influences protein folding and modifications. This guide simplifies the comparison of different systems, focusing on their benefits, drawbacks, and ideal uses, to help you make the best choice for your project.

Expression System Advantages Limitations Recommended Applications
Prokaryotic Expression System
  • High Expression Levels
  • Simple and Easy Operation
  • Clear Genetic Background
  • Low Cultivation Cost
  • Fast Reproduction Speed
  • Strong Stability
  • Unable to Perform Post-Translational Modifications
  • Complex Proteins May Fold Incorrectly
  • Prone to Form Inclusion Bodies
  • May Produce Toxins
  • Therapeutic Proteins
  • Industrial Enzymes
  • Antigens
  • Functional & Structural Studies
Yeast Expression System
  • High Expression Levels
  • Simple Cultivation
  • Lower Cost
  • Extensive Post-Translational Modifications
  • Safe and Non-Toxic
  • Large-Scale Production
  • Low Protein Yield
  • Prolonged Fermentation Time
  • Non-Human Glycosylation
  • High Mannose Modification
  • Vaccines
  • Glycosylation Studies
  • Secretory Protein Expression
Baculovirus-Insect Cell Expression System
  • High Expression Levels
  • Fast Growth Rate
  • Easily Scalable Culture
  • Extensive Post-Translational Modifications
  • No Endotoxins
  • Higher Upper Limit for Protein Size
  • Long Growth Cycle
  • High Cost
  • Lack of Some Glycosylation
  • Viral Infection May Lead to Cell Death
  • Kinases
  • Glycosylation Studies
  • Activity Analysis
  • Secretory Protein Expression
Mammalian Cell Expression System
  • Relatively High Expression Levels
  • Complex Protein Modifications Possible
  • Correct Folding & Functionality
  • Similar to Natural Proteins
  • High Activity
  • Long Culture Cycle
  • High Cost
  • Complex Culture Conditions
  • Low Expression Yield
  • Therapeutic Protein Production
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Recombinant Antibodies
  • Secretory Protein Expression
  • Functional & Structural Studies

The Nemesis of Norovirus

Noroviruses stand as the predominant culprits behind widespread epidemics and acute gastroenteritis outbreaks, emerging as the most prevalent non-bacterial agents responsible for foodborne illnesses. The challenges posed by these viruses, such as their rapid mutation, diverse types, limited cross-protection, short-lived immunoprotection, absence of effective cell culture systems and experimental animal models, coupled with a minimal understanding of critical aspects like the pathogenic mechanism of infection and protective immune markers, create substantial hurdles for the development and application of vaccines. The intricacies of noroviruses extend to their inefficient growth in cultured cells, rendering traditional live attenuated or inactivated vaccine approaches impractical. Consequently, the adoption of non-replicating recombinant protein vaccine strategies with VLPs has become a prevailing choice.

Recently, a groundbreaking collaboration between major companies in the vaccine development sector promises to significantly advance the fight against norovirus infections. This partnership aims to leverage innovative technologies and exclusive licensing agreements to bring forth a vaccine that addresses the unmet clinical demand. While no international companies currently offer a vaccine to combat norovirus infections, this collaboration marks a pivotal step towards fulfilling this significant market potential and offers hope for effective prevention strategies against these challenging viruses.

Synbio Technologies | Efficient Protein Expression Empowers Recombinant Protein Vaccine Development

With our effective protein expression platforms—BacterialYeastInsect and MammalianSynbio Technologies is the perfect partner to help you efficiently develop recombinant protein vaccines and expedite your research process as a whole!

At Synbio Technologies, our team of experts boasts over a decade of extensive experience in protein expression and purification. Guided by our comprehensive synthetic biology platform and advanced NG Codon optimization technology, we deliver effective solutions that surpass expectations. We provide customized services for the production of high-purityactive proteins from milligram to kilogram quantities for scientists around the world. We use alternative expression vectors, hosts, fusion tags, and other components to enable tailormade customization based on the characteristics of specific proteins alongside the research needs of our clients. With our industry-leading protein expression and purification services, our goal is to accelerate your R&D timelines while helping you stay under budget.


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