Advances in molecular biology and genetic engineering technology, microbial genetic manipulations have promoted the application of microorganisms in in ecological and environmental research. Genetically engineered microorganisms are being developed and assessed for their beneficial uses in environmental monitoring, toxic chemicals pollution control and genetically engineered microorganisms.
The oligonucleotide probes can hybridize to DNA or RNA whose base sequence allows probe–target base pairing due to complementarity between the probe and target to analyze the presence of nucleotide sequences (the DNA target) that are complementary to the sequence in the probe.
Due to the stringent specificity and high sensitivity of nucleic acid hybridization, hybridization probes are used on a broad level in microbial ecology, such as microbial detection, qualitative and quantitative analysis of microbial, distribution, abundance and adaptability of microbial.
PCR based technologies
The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique used in molecular biology to amplify DNA template, generating thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence in vitro. This technique can be used to analyze mRNA expression profile among different growth stages.
The interaction between DNA double helix are disrupted during denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis(DGGE)， temperature gradient gel electrophoresis(TGGE) and other special forms of electrophoresis, thus the DNA fragments consist of different sequences can be separated on acrylamide gel with superior resolution.
New recombinant DNA may be generated by first isolation and amplification the genetic material of interest using molecular cloning methods, then the chimera DNA sequence or artificially synthesized DNA maybe inserted into the host organism. This technique is essential for the construction of microbes with enhanced biodegradability that may be used in controlling remediation of contaminated environment or fermentation of waste to produce natural gas.
Application of molecular biology technology not only expanded the horizon but also increased the depth of microbial ecology research. The increasing amount of microbe’s genomic data provides new opportunities for understanding the genetic and molecular bases of the degradation genes in various bacteria. The in-depth knowledge of microbes’ genome will make the research more objective and more controllable.