The process of various signal transduction molecules recognizing and interacting with each other to convert and transmit signals is called signal transduction. When the external environment changes, multicellular organisms transmit information through a complex signal transmission system in order to regulate the body activities. Transduction involves direct contact with neighboring cells and secretion of various chemicals to regulate metabolism and function of other cells. The general steps of transmembrane signal transduction includes the release of information material by a specific cell, diffusion or circulation of the cell material to the target cell, specific binding with the target cell receptor, then the receptor converts the signal and initiates the intracellular messenger system, and lastly the target cell produces biological effects.
Common proteins in key cell signal transduction pathways include extracellular growth factors, membrane receptors, GTPs, protein kinases, response elements, binding proteins, and transcription factors. Popular signal transduction pathways and its related protein categories include: MAPK/ERK pathways, AKT pathways, Wnt pathways, phosphorylated proteins (serine or tyrosine phosphorylated proteins), and transcription factors.
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