As our understanding of DNA sequences (Genotype) and biological functions (Phenotype) increases, the ability to design and synthesize (Synotype) genes, pathways, genomes, and organisms by using synthetic biology techniques is also improving quickly. Synbio Technologies can provide a full range of DNA reading (sequencing), DNA writing (synthesis), and DNA editing services. Relying on our synthesis and assembly platform and CRISPR-Cas9 technology, Synbio Technologies can provide efficient editing of microbial genomes. Synbio Technologies has established CRISPR gene editing systems in more than dozens of bacteria (E.coli, Helicobacter pylori, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus thuringiensis, Staphylococcus aureus, etc.), fungi (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Monascus, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium, Aspergillus fumigatus, etc.) and other species.
Yeast Genome Editing Case Study
The ADE1 gene controls expression of adenine in yeast. ADE1 mutant yeast were engineered through CRISPR-Cas9. These mutants exhibited an accumulation of red pigment, a phenotype associated with the lack of adenine.
DNA sequencing indicates that 18 base pairs were missing (fig.2), suggested successful gene modification.